Today in 1974 (I was already around at the time), a team of scientists organized by Yves Coppens, Maurice Taieb and Donald Johanson discovered the most complete fossil skeleton of a member of Australopithecus afarensis found to date.
It is significant because it provided first evidence of an early bipedal hominid and filled a gap of knowledge concerning human evolution. As befits a discovery of this magnitude in this day and age, Google has honored the discovery with a Google Doodle which features an animation and some concise information on the discovery. Enjoy!
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